Salah

In The Name Of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful

“Surely I am Allah: there is no god besides Me: so worship
Me alone: and establish Salah for My remembrance.” (20:14)

Salah:
It is Arabic word for prayer (namaz). It means: To turn attention towards Allah, proceed towards Allah, pray to Allah, and to be near to Allah.

The purpose of Salah:
To remember Allah, seek His pleasure, and to live in obedience to His will.

The essence of Salah:
The Salah performed with full attention, concentration and devotion.

The pre-requisits of Salah:
1. The body being clean,
2. The clothes being clean,
3. The place being clean,
4. The satr (parts of the body ordained to be covered) being covered,
5. It being a permissible time for Salah,
6. To perform Wudu (Ablution)
7. The face being turned towards Qiblah, and
8. There being intention to pray.

The obligatory prayers:
1. Fajr: in the early morning before dawn,
2. Zohr: in the afternoon after mid-day,
3. Asr: in the late afternoon before sunset,
4. Maghrib: after sunset,
5. Isha: at night.

The Wajib (ordained) Prayers:
1. Salatul Witr (three rakahs, everyday after Isha Prayers)
2. Eid-ul-Fitr Salah (1st Shawwal, at the end of Ramadan, every year) and
3. Eid-ul-Azha Salah (10th of Zul hijjah, every year.

The Wajibat (ordained acts) of Salah:
The Wajibat are those acts that are compulsory to be performed in Salah. They are:
1. To recite a portion of the Quran in the first two rakahs of the Fard Prayers.
2. To recite Al-Fatiha in the first two rakahs of the Fard Prayer and in all the rakahs of the other Prayers.
3. To recite another Surah or a passage containing one long verse or three short verses after Al-Fatiha in the first two rakahs of the Fard Prayers and in all the rakahs of the other Prayers.
4. To observe the sequence in recitation, Ruku, Sajdah and the rakahs.
5. To observe Qaumah, i.e, to stand upright after Ruku.
6. To observe Jalsah, i.e, to sit upright between the two Sajdahs.
7. To perform Ruku and Sajdahs peacefully and with perfect tranquillity.
8. To observe Qadah Ulaa, first sitting, for Tashahhud after two rakahs in the Prayers consisting of three or four rakahs.
9. To recite Tashahhud in the two Qadahs.
10. To bring the Prayer to completion with salutation: (As-salamu alaikum wa rahmatullah.)
11. To raise hands with Takbir for the Qunut and to recite the Qunut in the last rakah of the Witr Prayer.

The Arkan (constituents) of Salah:
The things commanded in Salah are known as arkan (constituents) of Salah. Arkan is plural form of rukn. Rukn means a command or obligation. There are six commanded acts in Salah:
1. Saying Takbir e Tahrima,
2. Qiyam (standing),
3. Qirat (reciting the Holy Quran),
4. Ruku (making a bow),
5. Two Sajdahs (falling prostrate),
6. Qaida (sitting) that is, sitting sufficiently long to enable one to say Tashahhud. But the Takbir e Tahrima is a pre-condition not a constituent of Salah.

The Makruhat (undesirable acts) in ablution:
1. Performing ablution at an unclean spot,
2. Blowing ones nose with the right hand,
3. Performing ablution against the norms of sunnah.

“Indeed Allah loves those who turn to Him in repentance
and loves those who purify themselves.” (2:222)

The Qiblah:
The direction facing the Kaba in Makkah. The first house of Allah (swt) on earth to worship Him, was built by Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) by the order of Allah, which is located in the holy Makkah called “Baitullah” or “kabatullah” or “Masjid Al-Haram”. Prophet Muhammad was ordered in the Quran to turn the face towards this house while praying. From that day onwards, wherever the Muslims are, have to face towards this house.

The Azan:
Before every obligatory prayer a call for Salah (slogan) is pronounced from the mosque. A supplication made between the Adhan and the Iqamah is not rejected.

A Mosque:
A Mosque is in fact the pivot about which the whole life of the Muslim community revolves. It is a religious center to hold congregational services and to keep Muslims together and united. The real purpose of building a Mosque is to make it a place of Allah’s worship and organize in it prayers, otherwise it won’t be much different from other buildings.

A Musalli:
The person who performs Salah.

A Mamoom:
The worshipper praying behind the Imam.

The Jahri Salah:
Salahs in which the holy Quran is to be recited aloud: It is compulsory for the Imam to recite the holy Quran aloud in the
1. Salatul Fajr
2. first two rakahs of Maghrib and Isha
3. Salatul Jumah
4. Salatul Eid
5. all rakahs of Tarawih and Witr during the holy month of Ramadan.

The Sirri Salah:
The Salah in which the Quran is recited in a low pitch is called (Sirri) Salah.

The Virtues of Salah:
1. Salah brings us close to Allah and reminds us of our duty to Him.
2. It makes us concious of His presence.
3. It makes us love Him and fear Him.
4. It trains us and makes us disciplined.
5. It enables us to obey Him.
6. We receive His help and blessings through Salah.
7. It keeps us on the Right Path.
8. It saves us from disobedience and from evil things.
9. It builds our character and develops a steady and sound personality.
10. It makes us clean and healthy and enables us to lead proper lives.
11. It makes us sincere Muslims and true servants of Allah.

Ref:
Elementary Teachings of Islam by Mohd Aleem Siddiqui;
Everyday Fiqh by Mohd Yusuf Islahi.